THE VITTORIANO - MUSEUM OF THE HOMELAND


Visualizzazione ingrandita della mappa
The Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II (better known of victory) is a national monument located in Rome's Piazza Venezia.
The monument is often wrongly identified with the Altar of the Fatherland, which in reality is only one part, equally wrongly, his name might lead one to think it is a tribute to victory, in reality the term derives from Victorian Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoy, first King of Italy, where the monument is dedicated.

project
On the death of Vittorio Emanuele II in 1878, it was decided to erect a monument celebrating the father of his country and with him the entire season Risorgimento. In 1880 it was first launched an international competition without success. In the next contest, launched in 1882, participation was restricted to only Italian engineers. He was also drawn up a detailed list of recommendations for the project, who prescribed "a complex sull'altura be erected north of the Capitol, in line with the Via del Corso, a bronze equestrian statue of King, an architectural background of at least thirty feet in length and twenty-nine in height, left free in form but likely to cover behind buildings and lateral Church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli. Competitors had a year to deliver the project. The proposals were submitted in 1998 and the three selected for the final choice the royal commission voted unanimously to Giuseppe Sacconi, a young architect Marche.
The original design work (one of the largest built in the nineteenth century) included the use of travertine marble, but the monument was then made of Botticino Mattina Rezzato, more easily shaped and from the area of origin of Joseph Zanardelli (which had issued the Royal Decree for the construction of the monument). The project was inspired in large complex Sacconi classics such as the Pergamon Altar and the Temple of Palestrina, the monument would be so great a space conceived as a "hole" open to the public, in a sort of raised plaza in the heart Imperial Rome, the symbol of a united Italy after Rome of the Caesars and the Popes.

Construction
To convert it was necessary, between 1885 and 1888, carry out numerous evictions and demolitions in the area adjacent to the Capitol, played with an uncompromising program established by the Prime Minister Agostino Depretis. He proceeded to demolish such a large medieval district were killed and the Tower of Paul III, the bridge connecting the Palazzo Venezia, the three cloisters of the convent of Ara Coeli and the whole building this child on the slopes of the hill.
After the death of Sacconi, occurred in 1905, work continued under the direction of Gaetano Koch, Manfredo Manfredi Pio Piacentini. The monument was inaugurated by King Victor Emmanuel III June 4, 1911, the International Exhibition for the fiftieth anniversary of the Unification of Italy. The completion of the work came to an end but much later (the chariot of Unity and Liberty, respectively sculptors Carlo Fontana and Paolo Bartolini, were placed on propylaea between 1924 and 1927, while the last work completed in 1935).
The complex of Victorian-style neoclassical building techniques and bold for its time, celebrating the grandeur and majesty of Rome, finally returned to his role as the legitimate capital of Italy.
The building, due to its large size, has a complicated structure and dynamics with a neoclassical portico featuring Corinthian columns (with acanthus leaves carved on the marble) meets the respective sides with two porches in two columns (made more with Corinthian capitals) that take us back to the splendors of the temple of Nike (Victory "personified") Acropolis of Athens.
The culmination of the building, at each porch is decorated with two bronze chariots surmounted by winged Victories, which reproduce the synergy of architectural expression and triumphal arches.
The building has raised several controversies in the most uncompromising art critic who saw the building (even after the construction had been completed) an attempt anachronistic and "unsuccessful" to return to the classicism of Rome ' Imperial.

The fountains of the two seas
The fountain on the left, Emilio Quadrelli represents the Adriatic, facing East, with the Lion of San Marco. Right, the Tyrrhenian, Pietro Canonica, with the wolf of Rome and the siren Partenope, symbolizing the city of Naples.

Steps
The staircase was reopened in 2000 after forty years of restoration of the complex. Inside the exhibition spaces are dedicated to the history of himself and the Victorian home of the National Museum of the Risorgimento, which also houses a few years exhibitions.
Different symbols are plants that occur in the monument, including the palm to remember the victory, the oak for strength, peace victorious laurel, myrtle and olive trees for the sacrifice for the harmony.

Altar of the Nation
Altar of the home at night with guard of onoreSulla staircase is the Altar of the Fatherland that, contrary to popular belief, is only part of the complex, ie the part located just beyond the staircase, where there are picket 's honor and the great statue of the goddess Rome with gold background. The Altar of the Fatherland was designed by the sculptor Angelo Zanelli Brescia, who won the competition in 1906.
The winning design was inspired by the Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil. The relief on the left is the job, with the order (from right to left) the allegory of Agriculture, Livestock, Harvesting, Crop and Irrigation, then the winged genius of job boards a great plow triumphant , followed by industry. The second relief symbolizes the love of country, with a performance (from left to right) of three women wearing crowns honorary Rome, followed by banners (the banners legionary), then the cart and the victory of love of country ' Heroes, followed finally the sacred fire of the Fatherland.
Inside the Unknown Soldier is buried: it is a body selected from those of the unknown dead of the First World War right choice to represent all the soldiers who could not have a grave with a spade. The body was placed in the monument on November 4, 1921.
Registration
The Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II giornoLa central theme of the monument is represented by two inscriptions on propylaea "patriae KINGDOM" "CIVIUM freedom" (in Latin "the unity of the homeland" and "the freedom ; Citizens "), each placed under the two chariots of Carlo Fontana and Paolo Bartolini.
Statues Regions
The regions and cities are central elements of the complex, each of the statues of sixteen Italian regions (many were at the end of the nineteenth century) was carried out by a sculptor of the same region. Order: Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Liguria, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Marche, Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo, Campania, Puglia, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicily and Sardinia.

Cities of Italy
In contrast, the statues of the fourteen cities that were reunified capital of Italy, the maritime republics or autonomous states are Maccagnani Eugene. Each city was represented with its own symbolism:
Genoa: wearing the dress of the Doges of the Republic
Milan: the shield presents the snake, symbol of the Visconti, and the cross municipal
Palermo: the snake around his arm is one of the oldest symbols of the city
Florence: the character wearing the laurel of poetry and is very similar to Dante's Beatrice
Venice: the lion in the crest is "molecular", ie the location of the crab
Naples: in addition to the necklace of dignity, wearing a royal
Bologna: Doctoral wears the crown and a code of law
Ravenna: the clothes are Byzantine Exarchate
Turin: the tradition is symbolized dall'armatura bellicose city (located in the center as the first capital of Italy)
Ferrara: the pound is the cultivated local court of the Este
Pisa: in memory of the Republic, leads the Phrygian cap
Mantua: besides the ducal crown, Virgil is a shield
Amalfi: the compass dell'amalfitano Flavio Gioia is depicted in the arms
Urbino: the clothes are of the golden city
Wins triumphal columns
These statues were originally gilded, and were carved by Nicola Cantalamessa, Adolfo Apolloni, Mario Rutelli and Arnaldo Zocchi in 1911.

Quadrige Unity and Freedom
A symbol of Unity and Freedom, was already planned since 1885 but were placed for the first time only in 1927 were made in the same year by Carlo Fontana and Paolo Bartolini. The monument is so well eighty feet high.

Shrine of Flags
Shrine of Flags is the place where it is collected and stored the flags of war of the military units and naval units dissolved deleted from the state fleet, and the flags of military institutions and units belonging to the armed forces of the state (State Police, Prison Police, State Forestry, the Guardia di Finanza) dissolved.
At the shrine also houses the relics relating to the wars, especially the Risorgimento, which took part in the Italian armed forces. In the first hall are preserved flags 228 and 469 in the second. Downstairs there are the flags and coats of combat units of the Italian Navy.